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    • 所屬考試大學英語四級試題庫
    • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section B】
    Section B
     In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

    Finding the Right Home—and Contentment, Too  
        [A] When your elderly relative needs to enter some sort of long-term care facility—a moment few parents or children approach without fear—what you would like is to have everything made clear.
      [B] Does assisted living really mark a great improvement over a nursing home, or has the industry simply hired better interior designers? Are nursing homes as bad as people fear, or is that an out-moded stereotype (固定看法)? Can doing one’s homework really steer families to the best places? It is genuinely hard to know.
      [C] I am about to make things more complicated by suggesting that what kind of facility an older person lives in may matter less than we have assumed. And that the characteristics adult children look for when they begin the search are not necessarily the things that make a difference to the people who are going to move in. I am not talking about the quality of care, let me hastily add. Nobody flourishes in a gloomy environment with irresponsible staff and a poor safety record. But an accumulating body of research indicates that some distinctions between one type of elder care and another have little real bearing on how well residents do.
      [D] The most recent of these studies, published in The journal of Applied Gerontology, surveyed 150 Connecticut residents of assisted living, nursing homes and smaller residential care homes (known in some states as board and care homes or adult care homes). Researchers from the University of Connecticut Health Center asked the residents a large number of questions about their quality of life, emotional well-being and social interaction, as well as about the quality of the facilities.
      [E] “We thought we would see differences based on the housing types,” said the lead author of the study, Julie Robison, an associate professor of medicine at the university. A reasonable assumption—don’t families struggle to avoid nursing homes and suffer real guilt if they can’t?
      [F] In the initial results, assisted living residents did paint the most positive picture. They were less likely to report symptoms of depression than those in the other facilities, for instance, and less likely to be bored or lonely. They scored higher on social interaction.
      [G] But when the researchers plugged in a number of other variables, such differences disappeared. It is not the housing type, they found, that creates differences in residents’ responses. “It is the characteristics of the specific environment they are in, combined with their own personal characteristics—how healthy they feel they are, their age and marital status,” Dr. Robison explained. Whether residents felt involved in the decision to move and how long they had lived there also proved significant.
      [H] An elderly person who describes herself as in poor health, therefore, might be no less depressed in assisted living (even if her children preferred it) than in a nursing home. A person who had input into where he would move and has had time to adapt to it might do as well in a nursing home as in a small residential care home, other factors being equal. It is an interaction between the person and the place, not the sort of place in itself, that leads to better or worse experiences. “You can’t just say, ‘Let’s put this person in a residential care home instead of a nursing home—she will be much better off,’” Dr. Robison said. What matters, she added, “is a combination of what people bring in with them, and what they find there.”
      [I] Such findings, which run counter to common sense, have surfaced before. In a multi-state study of assisted living, for instance, University of North Carolina researchers found that a host of variables—the facility’s type, size or age; whether a chain owned it; how attractive the neighborhood was—had no significant relationship to how the residents fared in terms of illness, mental decline, hospitalizations or mortality. What mattered most was the residents’ physical health and mental status. What people were like when they came in had greater consequence than what happened once they were there.
      [J] As I was considering all this, a press release from a respected research firm crossed my desk, announcing that the five-star rating system that Medicare developed in 2008 to help families compare nursing home quality also has little relationship to how satisfied its residents or their family members are. As a matter of fact, consumers expressed higher satisfaction with the one-star facilities; the lowest rated, than with the five-star ones.(More on this study and the star ratings will appear in a subsequent post.)
      [K] Before we collectively tear our hair out—how are we supposed to find our way in a landscape this confusing?—here is a thought from Dr. Philip Sloane, a geriatrician (老年病學專家) at the University of North Carolina: “In a way that could be liberating for families.”
      [L] Of course, sons and daughters want to visit the facilities, talk to the administrators and residents and other families, and do everything possible to fulfill their duties. But perhaps they don’t have to turn themselves into private investigators or Congressional subcommittees. “Families can look a bit more for where the residents are going to be happy,” Dr. Sloane said. And involving the future resident in the process can be very important.
      [M] We all have our own ideas about what would bring our parents happiness. They have their ideas, too. A friend recently took her mother to visit an expensive assisted living/nursing home near my town. I have seen this place—it is elegant, inside and out. But nobody greeted the daughter and mother when they arrived, though the visit had been planned;nobody introduced them to the other residents. When they had lunch in the dining room, they sat alone at a table.
      [N] The daughter feared her mother would be ignored there, and so she decided to move her into a more welcoming facility. Based on what is emerging from some of this research, that might have been as rational a way as any to reach a decision.
    1.[選詞填空]The system Medicare developed to rate nursing home quality is of little help to finding a satisfactory place.
      • 解題思路:根據題干中關鍵詞Medicare可定位到J段。該段第一句中提到,該系統與人們對護理機構的滿意度毫無關系。由此可知,該系統對人們尋找合適的護理機構并無幫助,因此選J段。
      2.[選詞填空]What kind of care facility old people live in may be less important than we think.
        • 解題思路:根據題干中的關鍵詞what kind of、live in和less定位至C段。該段第一句提到老人住在什么樣子的護理機構里可能沒有我們認為的那么重要。因此選C段。
        3.[選詞填空]Though it helps for children to investigate care facilities, involving their parents in the decision-making process may prove very important.
          • 解題思路:根據題干中關鍵詞investigate和in the process以及句意,可定位至L段。該段提到,子女們通過評價系統了解各個護理機構,但是將老人加入到這個調查選擇的過程也十分重要。故選L段。
          4.[選詞填空]At first the researchers of the most recent study found residents in assisted living facilities gave higher scores on social interaction.
            • 解題思路:根據題干中的關鍵詞higher scores定位至F段。該段提到,輔助生活機構的老人患抑郁癥的可能性要小,感覺孤單的可能性要小,在社交活動方面得到高分。因此選F段。
            5.[選詞填空]How a resident feels depends on an interaction between themselves and the care facility they live in.
              • 解題思路:根據題干中關鍵詞interaction可定位至H段。該段中第三句提到,是人和地方之間的相互反應,而不是那個地方本身能導致更好或更壞的體驗。因此選H段。
              6.[選詞填空]It is really difficult to tell if assisted living is better than a nursing home.
                • 解題思路:根據題干中的關鍵詞assisted living和nursing home可定位至B段。該段第一句提到一個疑問“輔助生活真的比養老院更好嗎?”,最后一句提到“這的確很難弄明白”。故選B段。
                7.[選詞填空]The author thinks her friend made a rational decision in choosing a more hospitable place over an apparently elegant assisted living home
                  • 解題思路:根據題干中的關鍵詞rational可定位至N段。該段提到,作者的朋友最后沒有選擇這家高雅昂貴的機構,而是選擇住進更加友好的機構,作者認為這是理智的。因此選N段。
                  8.[選詞填空]Many people feel guilty when they cannot find a place other than a nursing home for their parents.
                    • 解題思路:由題干中的關鍵詞guilt可定位到E段。該段最后一句說如果他們沒有找到除養老院之外的住處,他們會真正的慚愧,由此可知,沒有為父母找到一個安居的地方,子女會很羞愧,因此選E段。
                    9.[選詞填空]A resident’s satisfaction with a care facility has much to do with whether they had participated in the decision to move in and how long they had stayed there.
                      • 解題思路:根據題干中的關鍵詞in the decision to move和how long可定位至G段。該段最后一句提到子女是否讓老人參與決定搬進護理機構以及他們已經住進去多久是很重要的。由此答案為G段。
                      10.[選詞填空]The findings of the latest research were similar to an earlier multi-state study of assisted living.
                        • 解題思路:根據題干中的關鍵詞multi-state study of assisted living可定位至I段。該段第一句提到,這樣的結果,在之前就已經有了。之后就提到輔助生活的多態研究。由此答案選I段。
                        • 參考答案:J,C,L,F,H,B,N,E,G,I