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    • 所屬考試大學英語六級試題庫
    • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section C】

          People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors arc formed.It's not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not. or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

      Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of question. They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibits certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on thee matter have developed. As one might expect the two approaches are very different from one another. and there is a great deal of debate between proponents of each theory. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as"nature/nurture".

      Those who support the "nature" side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological and genetic factor. That our environment has little. if anything to do with our abilities. characteristics. and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme, this theory Maintains that our behavior is predetermined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.

      Proponents of the "nurture" theory, or, as they are often called. behaviorists. claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. Behaviorists see humans as being whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. Their view of the human being is quite mechanistic; they maintain that like machines. humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

      The social and political implications or these two theories are profound. In the United Stares, for example, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligent test. This leads some "nature" proponents to conclude that blacks are genetically interior to whites. Behaviorists, in contrast. say that the differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that white enjoy. and that. as a result. they do not develop the same responses that whites do.

      Neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior. In fact, it is quite likely that the key to our behavior lies somewhere between these two extremes. That the controversy will continue for a long time is certain.

    1.[單選題]What can we learn about the behaviorists?
    • A.They believe human beings are mechanical.
    • B.They compare our behaviors to the machines.
    • C.They suggest that we react to the environment as the machines do.
    • D.They uphold that the mechanistic theory can be applied on us as well.
    • 解題思路:本題實際上考查對第4段末句的正確理解。原文該句中的like machines, humans respond...表明作者并非單純把人類比作機器,而是把人類對環境的反應與機械對環境的反應作對比,故選項C正確。
    2.[單選題]Which of the following statements may be supported by the "nature" school?
    • A.We are born will certain personalities and behaviors.
    • B.Environment has nothing to do with our personalities.
    • C.Abilities and characteristics are revealed by behaviors.
    • D.Only extreme behaviors are determined by instinct.
    • 解題思路:第3段首句中的determined by biological and genetic factor和未句中的governed by our instincts/表明“天性論”派會認同選項A的看法。第3段第2句表明選項B中的has nothing to do with... 不正確;原文并未提及選項C中提到的能力、特點和行為之間的關系;選項D只是將第3段末句的某些詞語拼合在一起,原文并未討論有關extreme behaviors的內容。
    3.[單選題]The word "proponents" can best be replaced by _____.
    • A.approaches
    • B.advocates
    • C.principles
    • D.characters
    • 解題思路:第4段首句可以比較明顯看出proponents和該句中的they以及behaviorists所指相同。由此可見,proponents 一詞指的應該是人;第5段第3句中的conclude也表明proponents是有行為能力的人,只有選項B符臺這種推測。其他選項都是無行為能力的“方法”、“原則”或“特征”,都不適于原文句子的內容和搭配。
    4.[單選題]The author is mainly concerned about solving the problem__________________.
    • A.why one's behaviors differ from others'
    • B.what makes different stages of intelligence
    • C.how social scientists form different theories
    • D.what causes the "nature/nurture" controversy
    • 解題思路:原文開頭兩段指出作者要討論的問題,第2段末開始從兩個方面解釋該問題,末段是總結段,從文章的結構可見文章要探討的是人類行為如何形成。從選項來看,似乎沒有一個表達此意,但首段末句和第2段第2句中的why...從句表明how(怎樣形成)和why(為什么不同)其實是對文章關注的問題的兩個不同表述,故選A。
    5.[單選題]The "nature” theorists believe that the blacks' low scores____________.
    • A.are the result of the educational disadvantages
    • B.are a manifestation of the blacks' poor intelligence
    • C.have nothing to do with their true intelligence
    • D.have nothing to do will factors other than heredity
    • 解題思路:將第5段第3句與第3段結合起來,可以確定選項D為本題答案,只有選項D才符合“天性論”派對性格與行為形成的看法。選項A是另一派,即行為主義者的看法;原文該處雖也有intelligent一詞,但是“天性論”者關注的并非分數與真正的智力之間的關系,他們關注的是造成黑人分數低下的原因,事實上,原文也沒有提到分數和智力之間是否存在某種關系,因此選項B和C都沒有原文依據。
    • 參考答案:C,A,D,A,D