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    • 所屬考試大學英語六級試題庫
    • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section B】
    Lessons From a Feminist Paradise

      A. On the surface, Sweden appears to be a feminist paradise. Look at any global survey of gender equalityand Sweden will be near the top. Family-friendly policies are its norm--with 16 months of paid parent all eave, special protections for part-time workers, and state-subsidized preschools where, according to a government website, "gender-awareness education is increasingly common." Due to an unofficial quotasystem, women hold 45 percent of positions in the Swedish parliament. They have enjoyed the protection of government agencies with titles like the Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality and the Secretariat of Gender Research. So why are American women so far ahead of their Swedish counterpartsin breaking through the glass ceiling?
      B. In a 2012 report, the World Economic Forum found that when it comes to closing the gender gap in"economic participation and opportunity," the United States is ahead of not only Sweden but also Finland, Denmark, the Netherlands, Iceland, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Sweden's rank in there port can largely be explained by its political quota system. Though the United States has fewer women in the workforce(68 percent compared to Sweden's 77 percent), American women who choose to beemployed are far more likely to work full-time and to hold high-level jobs as managers or professionals.They also own more businesses, launch more start-ups (新創辦的企業), and more often work in traditionally male fields. As for breaking through the glass ceiling in business, American women are well in the lead.
      C. What explains the American advantage? How can it be that societies like Sweden, where gender equalityis vigorously pursued and enforced, have fewer female managers, executives, professionals, and business owners than the laissez-faire (自由放任的) United States? A new study by Cornell economists Francine Blau and Lawrence Kahn gives an explanation.
      D. Generous parental leave policies and readily available part-time options have unintended consequences:instead of strengthening women's attachment to the workplace, they appear to weaken it. In addition toa 16-month leave, a Swedish parent has the right to work six hours a day (for a reduced salary) until hisor her child is eight years old. Mothers are far more likely than fathers to take advantage of this law. But extended leaves and part-time employment are known to be harmful to careers--for both genders. Andwith women a second factor comes into play: most seem to enjoy the flexible-time arrangement (onceknown as the"mommy track") and never find their way back to full-time or high-level employment. Insum: generous family-friendly policies do keep more women in the labor market, but they also tend to diminish their careers.
      E. According to Blau and Kahn, Swedish-style paternal (父親的) leave policies and flexible-time arrangements pose a second threat to women's progress: they make employers cautious about hiring women for full-time positions at all. Offering a job to a man is the safer bet. He is far less likely to takea year of parental leave and then return on a reduced work schedule for the next eight years.
      F.  I became aware of the trials of career-focused European women a few years ago when I met a post-doctoral student from Germany who was then a visiting fellow at Johns Hopkins. She was astonished bythe professional possibilities afforded to young American women. Her best hope in Germany was a government job-prospects for women in the private sector were dim. "In Germany," she told me, "we have all the benefits, but employers don't want to hire us."
      G. Swedish economists Magnus Henrekson and Mikael Stenkula addressed the following question in their2009 study: why are there so few female top executives in the European egalitarian (平等主義的)welfare states? Their answer:"Broad-based welfare-state policies hinder women's representation in elitecompetitive positions."
      H. It is tempting to declare the Swedish policies regressive (退步的) and hail the American system assuperior. But that would be shortsighted. The Swedes can certainly take a lesson from the United Statesand look for ways to clear a path for their ambitious female careerists. But most women are notcommitted careerists. When the Pew Research Center recently asked American parents to identify their"ideal" life arrangement,47 percent of mothers said they would prefer to work part-time and 20 percentsaid they would prefer not to work at all. Fathers answered differently: 75 percent preferred full-timework. Some version of the Swedish system might work well for a majority of American parents, but theUnited States is unlikely to fully embrace the Swedish model. Still, we can learn from their experience.
      I. Despite its failure to shatter the glass ceiling, Sweden has one of the most powerful and in novative economies in the world. In its 2011-2012 survey, the World Economic Forum ranked Sweden as the world's third most competitive economy; the United States came in fifth. Sweden, dubbed the "rocks tar of the recovery" in the Washington Post, also leads the world in life satisfaction and happiness. It is a society well worth studying, and its efforts to conquer the gender gap impart a vital lesson--though notthe lesson the Swedes had in mind.
      J. Sweden has gone farther than any other nation on earth to integrate the sexes and to offer women the same opportunities and freedoms as men. For decades, these descendants of the Vikings have been trying to show the world that the right mix of enlightened policy, consciousness raising, and non-sexist child rearing would close the gender divide once and for all. Yet the divide persists.
      K. A 2012 press release from Statistics Sweden bears the title"Gender Equality in Sweden Treading (踩)
    Water" and notes:
    ~ The total income from employment for all ages is lower for women than for men.~ One in three employed women and one in ten employed men work part-time.
    ~ Women's working time is influenced by the number and age of their children, but men's working time is not affected by these factors.
    ~ Of all employees, only 13 percent of the women and 12 percent of the men have occupations with an even distribution of the sexes.
      L.  Confronted with such facts, some Swedish activists and legislators are demanding more extreme and far-reaching measures, such as replacing male and female pronouns with a neutral alternative and monitoring children more closely to correct them when they gravitate (被吸引) toward gendered play. When it came to light last year that mothers, far more than fathers, chose to stay home from work to care for their sickkids, Ulf Kristersson, minister of social security, quickly commissioned a study to determine the causes of and possible cures for this disturbing state of affairs.
      M. Swedish family policies, by accommodating women's preferences effectively, are reducing the number of women in elite competitive positions. The Swedes will find this paradoxical and try to find solutions. Letus hope these do not include banning gender pronouns, policing children's play, implementing moregender quotas, or treating women's special attachment to home and family as a social injustice. Most mothers do not aspire to (向往) elite, competitive full-time positions: the Swedish policies have given them the freedom and opportunity to live the lives they prefer. Americans should look past the gender rhetoric and consider what these Scandinavians have achieved. On their way to creating a feminist paradise, the Swedes have unintentionally created a haven (避風港) for normal mortals. 

    1.[選詞填空]The quota system in Sweden ensures women's better representation in government.
      • 解題思路:由題干中的quota system和representation in  government定位到A段第四句。細節推斷題。定位句提到,由于非官方的配額制度,女性在瑞典議會中占據了45%的席位。題干中的women’S better representation與定位句中的women hold 45 percent of positions意思一致,題干中的The quota system和in government分別對應定位句中的an unofficial quota system和in the Swedish parliament,故答案為A)。

      2.[選詞填空]Some lawmakers in Sweden propose that gender less pronouns be used in the Swedish language.
        • 解題思路:由題干中的lawmakers和gender less  pronouns定位到L段第一句。細節推斷題。定位句提到,一些瑞典激進主義者和立法者正要求采取更極端和更深遠的措 施,比如用一個中性詞替代男女性別代詞。題干中的lawmakers和genderless pronouns分別對應  定位句中的legislators和a neutral alternative,故答案為L。

        3.[選詞填空]Swedish women are allowed the freedom and opportunity to choose their own way of life.
          • 解題思路:由題干中的the freedom and opportunity定位到M)段第四句。同義轉述題。定位句提到,大多數母親并 不向往具有競爭力的精英的全職崗位:瑞典的政策已經給了她們自由和機會去過自己更喜歡的生活。題干中的the freedom and opportunity與定位句表述一致,choose their own way of life是對定位句中的live the lives they prefer的同義轉述,故答案為M。

          4.[選詞填空]Sweden has done more than other nations to close the gender gap, but it continues to exist.
            • 解題思路:由題干中的close the gender gap和  continues to exist定位到J)段。細節推斷題。定位段首句提到,在性別融合和為男女提供同等機會和自由方面,瑞典已經走得比世界上其他任何一個國家都遠了;定位段末句指出這種差異仍然存在。題干是對定位段首句和末句的概括,故答案為J)。
            5.[選詞填空]Swedish employers are hesitant about hiring women for full-time positions because of the family-friendly policies.
              • 解題思路:由題干中的hiring women for full time  positions定位到E段第一句。細節歸納題。定位句提到,Blau和Kahn 稱,瑞典式產假政策和彈性時間安排對女性進步形成了第二個威脅:它們讓雇主在聘用女性擔任全職職位時小心翼翼。題干中的hesitant對應定    位句中的cautious,hiring women for full time  positions與定位句中的表述二致,the family friendly policies是對定位句中的Swedish style   paternal leave policies  and  flexible-time  arrangements的歸納,故答案為E。
              6.[選詞填空]More American women hold elite job positions in business than Swedish women.
                • 解題思路:由題干中的More American women和hold elite job positions in business定位到B段。細節推斷題。定位段倒數后三句提到,盡管美國職業女性的比例較低(68%,而瑞典達到了77%),但是選擇工作的美國女性更有可能從事全職工作和擔任高級別的工作職位,如經理或專業人士。她們還擁有更多的企業,創辦更多的新企業,也更有可能在傳統的男性領域工作。在突破商業領域的玻璃天花板方面,美國女性遙遙領先。題干中的hold elite job positions in business對應定位句中的hold high-level jobs as managers or professionals,故答案為B)。

                7.[選詞填空]Swedish family-friendly policies tend to exert a negative influence on women's careers.
                  • 解題思路:由題干中的family friendly policies,tend t0和women’s careers定位到D)段末句。細節推斷題。定位句提到,慷慨的家庭友好政策確實讓更多的女性留在了勞動力市場,但是也往往不利于她們職業生涯的發展。題干與定位句意思一致,故答案為D)。

                  8.[選詞填空]Though the Swedish model appears workable for most American parents, it may not be accepted by them in its entirety.
                    • 解題思路:由題f中的the Swedish model和most  American parents定位到H)段倒數第二句。同義轉述題。定位句提到,瑞典的某些體  制可能適合大多數的美國父母,但美國不太可能完全接受瑞典模式。題干中的the Swedish model  對應定位句中的Some version of the Swedish  system,may not be accepted by them in its  entirety對應定位句中的is unlikely to fully  embrace the Swedish model,故答案為H)。

                    9.[選詞填空]Sweden is one of the most competitive economies in the world and its people enjoy the greatest life satisfaction.
                      • 解題思路:由題干中的0ne of the most competitive  economies和life satisfaction定位到I)段第二、三  句。細節辨認題。由定位句可知,世界經濟論壇將瑞典列為世界第三大最具競爭力的經濟體,而且,瑞典在生活滿意度和幸福感排名上也領先于世界其他國家。題干中的0ne of the most  competitive economies對應定位句中的the  world’S third most competitive economy,the  greatest life satisfaction對應定位句中的leads  the world in life satisfaction,故答案為I)。

                      10.[選詞填空]Gender-awareness education is becoming more and more popular in state-subsidized preschools in Sweden.
                        • 解題思路:由題干中的Gender.awareness education  和state—subsidized preschools定位到A段第三句。細節辨認題。定位句提到,某政府網站顯示.在有瑞典政府補貼的幼兒尉中,性別意識教育越來越普遍。題干中的Gender.awareness education和state.subsidized preschools均與定位句中的表述一致,故答案為A。
                        • 參考答案:A,L,M,J,E,B,D,H,I,A