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    • 所屬考試大學英語六級試題庫
    • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section C】
        It began with some marshmallows (棉花軟糖). In the 1960s Walter Mischel, a psychologist then working at Stanford University, started a series of experiments on young children. A child was left alone for 15 minutes with a marshmallow or similar treat, with the promise that, if it remained uneaten at the end of this period, a second would be added. Some of the children, who were aged four or five at the time, yielded to temptation before time was up. Others resisted, and held out for the reward. 
        Dr. Mischel then followed the children's progress as they grew up. Those who had resisted, he found, did better at school than those who had given in. As adults they got better jobs, were less likely to use drugs and got into trouble with the law less frequently.  Moreover, children's family circumstances suggested thatimpulsive behavior was as much learned as inherited. This suggested that it could be unlearned-improving the child in question's ch" nces in life. 
        Study after study has confirmed Dr. Mischel's insight. However, recent observations, however, raise the possibility that developing self-control is not always an unalloyed (純粹的) good. 
        Work published two years ago by Gene Brody of the University of Georgia, who looked at a group of young black Americans, showed that those who exhibited serf-control as teenagers did indeed get the expected benefits. But if such serf-controllers came from deprived backgrounds, they developed higher blood pressure, were more likely to be obese and had higher levels of stress hormones than their less-serf-controlled peers. 
    That correlation did not apply to people who started farther up the social ladder. 
        Dr. Brody and his colleagues have followed this study with one that comes to an equally astonishing conclusion: for people born at the bottom of the social heap, seif-control speeds up the process of ageing. 
    Dr. Brody and his colleagues followed almost 300 black American teenagers of different backgrounds as they aged from 17 to 22. For the first few years the researchers assessed their volunteers' levels of self-control, and also looked for signs of depression, aggression and drug use. They assessed, too, those volunteers' socioeconomic backgrounds. But the last examination, when participants were 22 years old, was different. 
        Then, the researchers took a blood sample, recorded the DNA-methylation ( DNA 甲基化) patterns of cells in it, and worked out how much these deviated from the pattern expected at that particular age. As the study shows, for people from high-status backgrounds, higher serf-control meant lower cellular ages. For those whose background was low-status, the reverse was true. 
        Dr. Brody's findings are both intriguing and worrying. The research into gene methylation suggests changing methylation patterns are a common response to changing circumstances as well as changing age, as the body's physiology strnggies to keep up. Fortunately, people can change their circumstances in rational ways: the lesson of the marshmallows shows that. If Dr. Brody's result is confirmed, the challenge it poses will be to work out how to avoid the adverse effects of serf-control. 
    1.[單選題]What can we know about Dr. Brody's findings?
    • A.They are out of the expectation of the researchers.
    • B.They reveal a connection between gene and age.
    • C.They contradict with the results of Mischel's study.
    • D.They raise a new issue for research in the future.
    • 解題思路:由題干關鍵詞Dr.Brody’s findings可定位至文章第七段最后一句。 事實細節題。定位句指出,如果布羅迪的研究結果得以證實,它所提出的挑戰將會是尋找如何規避自控力負面影響的辦法,可以說這個研究發現為未來提出了一個新的問題,故答案為D。A“它們出乎了研究者的預料”,之前的研究已經證實了發展自控力并不一定會為所有人帶來益處,而是因社會背景而異,該研究只是從另一個側面予以證實,并沒有出乎研究者的預料,故可排除;B“它們揭示了基因與年齡之間的關系”,由定位句可知,該研究發現的是自控力與年齡、社會背景的關系,只是通過基因進行觀察,B表述錯誤,故可排除;C“它們與米歇爾的研究發現相矛盾”,米歇爾研究發現的是自控力與終身成就的關系,而布羅迪更多地關注了自控力發展與社會家庭背景的關系,角度不同,但并不矛盾,故排除C。
    2.[單選題]Which of the following is true of Dr. Mischel's experiment?
    • A.It probed into the self-control level of little children.
    • B.It showed that most children couldn't resist temptation.
    • C.It exhibited that serf-control connects with life achievement.
    • D.It found out a way to help children develop serf-control.
    • 解題思路:由題干中的Dr.Mischel’s experiment定位至文章第一段最后兩句和第二段第二、三句。 事實細節題。從定位句可以看出,米歇爾博士追蹤了實驗中兩類不同的孩子:可以抵制誘惑, 自控力更強的和不能抵制誘惑,自控力較差的。他發現自控力強的孩子無論在學業上還是日后在事業上都與自控力差的孩子顯現出差異,可見,自控力與終身成就有所關聯,故答案為C。A“它探究了小孩子的自控力水平”,從定位句可知,米歇爾博士的研究只是將能夠或不能自控的孩子分開,并沒有按自控力水平進行劃分,故可排除;B“它顯示出大多數孩子都不能抵制誘惑”,本段提到部分孩子沒有抵制住誘惑,但并沒有說是大多數,故可排除;D“它找到了幫助孩子發展自控力的方法”,米歇爾博士追蹤了不同自控力孩子的發展情況,但并沒有提到發展自控力的方法,故D與原文意思不符,可以排除。
    3.[單選題]Which of the following can be a suitable title for the passage?
    • A.Social Background and Self-control
    • B.What Benefits Will Self-control Bring?
    • C.How Should We Develop Self-control?
    • D.Probing the Effects of Self-control
    • 解題思路:由題干可知本題考查主旨大意,需從全文出發進行解答。 主旨大意題。文章開篇從一項實驗研究講起,說明自控力的培養與人的學業、事業的成就有所關聯。而從第四段開始,作者又從另一個角度指出,對于不同社會背景的人而言,自控力可能會帶來不同的影響,對于社會階層較高的人,自控力會給其健康帶來積極的影響,反之,則可能損害健康。綜合看來,本文是在探究自控力的影響,故答案為D。A“社會背景與自控力”只能概括文章后半部分,即布羅迪博士的研究,不夠全面,故可排除;B“自控力可以帶來什么益處?”從文中可以看出自控力并非總是帶來益處,而是因人而異的,故可排除;C“我們應該如何發展自控力?”作者只提到了自控力的影響,并沒有說如何發展自控力,故可排除。
    4.[單選題]Dr. Brody's new study with young black Americans reveals that ________.
    • A.developing serf-control is not beneficial at all
    • B.teenagers can benefit from developing self-control
    • C.the effect of serf-control relates to social background
    • D.serf-control causes high blood pressure and obesity
    • 解題思路:由題干中的Dr.Brody’s和young black Americans定位至文章第四段最后兩句。 事實細節題。定位句指出,在自控力強的人群中,如果來自較為貧困的家庭,則強自控力可能使血壓更高,更可能肥胖,并且壓力激素水平更高,而對于來自較高社會階層家庭的人則不存在這種隋況,可見,高自控力的影響與不同的社會背景有關,故答案為C。A“發展自控力根本沒有任何益處”,盡管本段提到高自控力對于來自較貧困家庭的人可能意味著提高一些疾病的風險,而高社會階層的人群并沒有這種情況,但是上文第二段也指出,自控力強的人社會成就要優于自控力弱的人,故自控力并非沒有益處,A不符合文意, 故可排除;B“青少年可以從發展自控力中獲益”,布羅迪博士的研究恰恰說明,對于不同社會背景的人來說,自控力的影響是不同的,B以偏概全,故可排除;D“自控力會導致高血壓和肥胖”,定位句指出,只有來自貧困家庭的人才會出現這種情況,對于社會階層高的人則不存在這種情況,故可排除。
    5.[單選題]What can we infer about DNA-methylation from the passage?
    • A.It can reveal levels of self-control.
    • B.It relates to the physiological age.
    • C.It is one of the ingredients of blood.
    • D.It changes with social circumstance.
    • 解題思路:根據題干關鍵詞DNA-methylation可定位至文章第六段第五至七句。 推理判斷題。定位句指出,研究者通過記錄細胞DNA甲基化模式,對比研究對象與特定年齡應有的細胞的情況,從而得出研究對象的生理年齡信息,可見,DNA甲基化與人類的生理年齡有所關聯,故答案為B。A“它能揭示自控力水平”,從定位句可知,研究者研究DNA甲基化模式是為了觀察細胞年齡,而原文并沒提到它可以顯示自控力水平,故可排除;C“它是血液中的一種成分”,研究者抽取血液記錄細胞DNA甲基化模式,只能說明從分析血液的途徑反應甲基化模式,不能說DNA甲基化是血液的成分,故可排除;D“它隨著社會環境而變化”,文中提到對于同樣發展自控力的人群而言,不同社會背景可能會造成不同的影響,但不能籠統地說甲基化模式會隨著社會環境而變化,故可排除。
    • 參考答案:D,C,D,C,B