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Daylight Saving Time (DST)

How and When Did Daylight Saving Time Start? 

A. Benjamin Franklin--of "early to bed and early to rise" fame--was apparently the first person to suggest theconcept of daylight savings. While serving as U.S. ambassador to France in Pads, Franklin wrote of beingawakened at 6 a.m. and realizing, to his surprise, that the sun would rise far earlier than he usually did.Imagine the resources that might be saved if he and others rose before noon and burned less midnight oil,Franklin, tongue half in cheek, wrote to a newspaper. 
B. It wasn't until World War I that daylight savings were realized on a grand scale. Germany was the first state to adopt the time changes, to reduce artificial lighting and thereby save coal for the war effort. Friends and foes soon followed suit. In the U.S. a federal law standardized the yearly start and end of daylight saving time in 1918—for the states that chose to observe it. 
C. During World War II the U.S. made daylight saving time mandatory(強制的.for the whole country, as a way to save wartime resources. Between February 9,1942, and September 30,1945, the government took it a step further. During this period daylight saving time was observed year-round, essentially making it the new standard time, if only for a few years. Many years later, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was enacted,mandating a controversial month-long extension of daylight saving time, starting in 2007. 
Daylight Saving Time: Energy Saver or Just Time Sucker? 
D. In recent years several studies have suggested that daylight saving time doesn't actually save energy—andmight even result in a net loss. Environmental economist Hendrik Wolff, of the University of Washington, co-authored a paper that studied Australian power-use data when parts of the country extended daylight savingtime for the 2000 Sydney Olympics and others did not. The researchers found that the practice reducedlighting and electricity consumption in the evening but increased energy use in the now dark mornings—wiping out the evening gains. That's because the extra hour that daylight saving time adds in the evening is ahotter hour. "So if people get home an hour earlier in a warmer house, they turn on their air conditioning," theUniversity of Washington's Wolff said. 
E. But other studies do show energy gains. In an October 2008 daylight saving time report to Congress, mandated by the same 2005 energy act that extended daylight saving time, the U.S. Department of Energy asserted that springing forward does save energy. Extended daylight saving time saved 1.3 terawatt (太瓦.hours of electricity. That figure suggests that daylight saving time reduces annual U.S. electricity consumptionby 0.03 percent and overall energy consumption by 0.02 percent. While those percentages seem small, theycould represent significant savings because of the nation's enormous total energy use. 
F. What's more, savings in some regions are apparently greater than in others. California, for instance, appears tobenefit most from daylight saving time--perhaps because its relatively mild weather encourages people to stayoutdoors later. The Energy Department report found that daylight saving time resulted in an energy savings ofone percent dally in the state. 
G. But Wolff, one of many scholars who contributed to the federal report, suggested that the numbers weresubject to statistical variability (變化.and shouldn't be taken as hard facts. And daylight savings' energygains in the U.S. largely depend on your location in relation to the Mason-Dixon Line, Wolff said. "The Northmight be a slight winner, because the North doesn't have as much air conditioning," he said. "But the South is a definite loser in terms of energy consumption. The South has more energy consumption under daylightsaving." 
Daylight Saving Time: Healthy or Harmful? 
H. For decades advocates of daylight savings have argued that, energy savings or no, daylight saving time boostshealth by encouraging active lifestyles--a claim Wolff and colleagues are currently putting to the test.   "In anationwide American time-use study, we're clearly seeing that, at the time of daylight saving time extension inthe spring, television watching is substantially reduced and outdoor behaviors like jogging, walking, or goingto the park are substantially increased," Wolff said. "That's remarkable, because of course the total amount ofdaylight in a given day is the same. " 
I. But others warn of ill effects. Till Roenneberg, a university professor in Munich (慕尼黑), Germany, said hisstudies show that our circadian (生理節奏的)body clocks--set by light and darkness--never adjust togaining an "extra" hour of sunlight to the end of the day during daylight saving time. 
J. One reason so many people in the developed world are chronically (長期地.overtired, he said, is that theysuffer from"social jet lag. " In other words, their optimal circadian sleep periods don't accord with their actualsleep schedules. Shifting daylight from morning to evening only increases this lag, he said. "Light doesn't dothe same things to the body in the morning and the evening. More light in the morning would advance thebody clock, and that would be good. But more light in the evening would even further delay the body clock. " 
K. Other research hints at even more serious health risks. A 2008 study concluded that, at least in Sweden,heart attack risks go up in the days just after the spring time change.  "The most likely explanation to ourfindings is disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms," One expert told National Geographic Newsvia email. 
Daylight Savings' Lovers and Haters 
L. With verdicts  (定論.on the benefits, or costs, of daylight savings so split, it may be no surprise that theyearly time changes inspire polarized reactions. In the U.K., for instance, the Lighter Later movement—part of10:10, a group advocating cutting carbon emissions—argues for a sort of extreme daylight savings. First, theysay, move standard time forward an hour, then keep observing daylight saving time as usual—adding twohours of evening daylight to what we currently consider standard time. The folks behind Standardtime.com, onthe other hand, want to abolish daylight saving time altogether, calling energy-efficiency claims "unproven. " 
M. National telephone surveys by Rasmussen Reports from spring 2010 and fall 2009 deliver the same answer.Most people just "don't think the time change is worth the hassle (麻煩的事). " Forty-seven percent agreedwith that statement, while only 40 percent disagreed. But Seize the Daylight author David Prerau said hisresearch on daylight saving time suggests most people are fond of it.  "I think if you ask most people if they enjoy having an extra hour of daylight in the evening eight months a year, the response would be pretty positive." 
1.[選詞填空]Supporters of daylight savings have long considered daylight saving time does good to people's health.
    • 解題思路:題干意為,夏令時的支持者長期以來認為夏令時對人們的健康有好處。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞supporters of daylight savings和does good to people’s health。文章段落中,提及夏令時支持者以及夏令時與人類健康的關系的內容在H段出現,該段第一句提到,幾十年來,夏令時的倡導者一直宣稱,不管夏令時能否節約能源,它都有利于健康,因為它倡導的是積極的生活方式。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故答案為H。
    2.[選詞填空]A university professor Studied the effect of daylight saving time and sounded the alarm of its negative effects.
      • 解題思路:題干意為,一位大學教授研究了夏令時的作用并警示人們其帶來的消極影響。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞a university professor和sounded the alarm of its negative effects。文章段落中,提及夏令時會帶來負面影響的內容在I段出現,該段首句指出,但是其他人卻警告人們夏令時所帶來的負面影響。第二句補充說,德國慕尼黑一所大學的教授蒂爾·倫內伯格說,他的研究顯示,我們的生物鐘是根據白天和黑夜確定的,永遠都適應不了夏令時期間白天快結束時所多出的那“額外”一小時的日光。由此可知,題干是對原文的概述,故答案為I。
      3.[選詞填空]A scholar contributing to a federal report suggested that the amount of saved energy had something to do with geographic position.
        • 解題思路:題干意為,協助撰寫聯邦報告的一位學者表示,能源的節約量與所處的地理位置有關。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞a scholar contributing to a federal report和geographic position。文章段落中,提及能源節約量和地理位置的關系的內容在G段出現,該段第二句提到,沃爾夫表示,夏令時給美國帶來的能源收益主要取決于某個地區與梅森一狄克森線的相對位置。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故答案為G。
        4.[選詞填空]Germany took the lead in saving wartime resources by adopting the time changes and reducing artificial lighting.
          • 解題思路:題干意為,德國率先通過采取時間變化和減少人工照明來節約戰時資源。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞Germany,the time changes和artificial lighting。文章段落中,有關德國的內容在B段出現,該段第二句提到,德國是第一個采取時間變化以減少人工照明從而為戰事節約煤炭資源的國家。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故答案為B。
          5.[選詞填空]Daylight savings' energy gains might be various due to different climates.
            • 解題思路:題干意為,夏令時帶來的能源收益可能會因為不同的氣候而有差異。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞daylight savings,energy gains,various和different climates。文章段落中,提到能源節約量與天氣有關的內容在F段出現,該段前兩句提到,一些地區的節能量明顯比其他地區要大。例如,加利福尼亞州似乎是從夏令時中獲益最大的 ——可能是因為那里的氣候相對溫和,鼓勵人們在戶外待到更晚。由此可知,題干對原文進行了概括和同義改寫,故答案為F。
            6.[選詞填空]Social jet lag can partly account for people's chronic fatigue syndrome in developed countries.
              • 解題思路:題干意為,社會時差是發達國家的人們患長期疲勞綜合征的部分原因。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞socialjetla9和chronicfatigue syndrome。文章段落中,提到社會時差和人們長期疲勞的內容在J段出現,該段第一句提到,發達國家中的很多人長期感覺過度勞累,原因之一就是,他們遭受“社會時差”的折磨。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故答案為J。
              7.[選詞填空]The figure of a study in the U.S. suggested that DST could save a lot of energy nationally.
                • 解題思路:題干意為,美國一項研究的數據表明實行夏令時能在全國范圍內節約很多能源。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞figure,save a lot of energy和nationally。文章段落中,提到整個國家節能總量大的內容在E段出現,該段最后兩句提到,這個數字意味著,夏令時使美國年耗電量降低了0.03%,也使整體能耗減少了0.02%。盡管這些百分比看起來很小,但是,由于國家總能耗量很龐大,它們所代表的節能量還是很大的。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義改寫,故答案為E。
                8.[選詞填空]A group advocating cutting carbon emissions launches the Lighter Later movement to back a kind of extreme daylight savings.
                  • 解題思路:題干意為,倡導降低碳排放量的一個組織發起了“晚亮燈運動”以支持一種極端的日光節約時制。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞a group advocating cutting carbon emissions,Lighter Later movement和a kind of extreme daylight savings。文章段落中,提及“晚亮燈運動”的內容在L段出現,該段第二句提到,在英國,“晚亮燈運動”——作為10:10(倡導降低碳排放量的一個組織)開展的運動的一部分——提倡一種極端的日光節約時制。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故答案為L。
                  9.[選詞填空]A research indicated that DST might not save energy by increasing energy use in the dark mornings, though it reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening.
                    • 解題思路:題干意為,一項研究表明,盡管實行夏令時能減少夜間照明及電量消耗,但卻因為增加了晨間的用電量而可能無法節約能源。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞increasing energy use in the dark mornings和reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening。文章段落中,提到了增加晨間的用電量和減少夜間照明及電量消耗的是D段,該段第三句提到,研究人員發現這種做法減少了夜間照明及電量消耗,但是卻增加了晨間的用電量,因為現在早晨很昏暗——這就抵消了夜間節約的能源。由此可知,題干對原文進行了同義改寫,故答案為D。
                    10.[選詞填空]Disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms may be the best explanation to higher heart attack risks in the days after the spring time change.
                      • 解題思路:題干意為,睡眠障礙和生物節奏紊亂可能是春季時間變化后心臟病發病率上升的最佳解釋。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms,explanation和higher heart attackrisks。文章段落中,提及睡眠障礙和生物節奏紊亂以及心臟病發病率上升的內容在K段出現,該段第二句提到,2008年的一項研究總結道,至少在瑞典,在春季時間變化后不久,心臟病發病率就上升了……接著第三句引用了一位專家的話: “根據我們的調查結果,最可能的解釋是睡眠障礙及生物節奏紊亂。”由此可知,題干是對原文的同義改寫,故答案為K。
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                      • 參考答案:H,I,G,B,F,J,E,L,D,K
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